[Note: the content of this post is standard number theoretic material that can be found in many textbooks (I am relying principally here on Iwaniec and Kowalski); I am not claiming any new progress on any version of the Riemann hypothesis here, but am simply arranging existing facts together.]

The Riemann hypothesis is arguably the most important and famous unsolved problem in number theory. It is usually phrased in terms of the Riemann zeta function $latex {\zeta}&fg=000000$, defined by

$latex \displaystyle \zeta(s) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{n^s}&fg=000000$

for $latex {\hbox{Re}(s)>1}&fg=000000$ and extended meromorphically to other values of $latex {s}&fg=000000$, and asserts that the only zeroes of $latex {\zeta}&fg=000000$ in the critical strip $latex {\{ s: 0 \leq \hbox{Re}(s) \leq 1 \}}&fg=000000$ lie on the critical line $latex {\{ s: \hbox{Re}(s)=\frac{1}{2} \}}&fg=000000$.

One of the main reasons that the Riemann hypothesis is so important to number theory is that the zeroes ofâ€¦

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